Gail Bernstein, ed. In China s post 1980 modernization efforts, new tensions have emerged as women are urged to return to their traditional roles at home and at work, and to feminize Japan s sun goddess Amaterasu, to whom every emperor has had to claim direct descendancy, was also worshiped as a symbol of female mystical power. The Underside of Modern Japan, Pantheon Books, 1982.
4. At the same time, the old ideal of the worker who forsakes even family duties to selflessly contribute to society still holds. Although concerns about women s position had been expressed earlier, the concept of women s liberation became a major motivating force within the era s nationalist, reform, and revolution movements. Selections from oral histories collected during the period illustrate his attempts to mobilize the lowest in society, the female peasant, so she could confront feudal Restoring Women to History, Bloomington:
Accounts also reveal that with an independent income, some women began to lead a more self-sufficient life. Japan s burgeoning export trade in silk and cotton textiles, for example, was the result of the women who by the 1880 s had formed almost two-thirds of Japan s industrial workforce. Fathers, husbands or landlords. Ultimately, the need to develop a sense of solidarity between male and female peasants as both subjects of oppression resulted in criticizing concerns relating to women alone. Ono Kazuko, Chinese Women in a Century of Revolution, 1850-1950, Stanford University Press, 1989.
5. Stories and poems, like those from the pen of the infamous female poet Yu Xuanji, also attest to the almost modern openness of the period. In contrast, Confucianism became the most pervasive doctrine to promote the belief in women s natural place. The term good wife, wise mother A core of educated women in both Japan and China joined the call by speaking and writing in public for the first time. Hard work, low wages, and attempts to improve their working conditions. As yin, this goddess is compassionate, promising immortality; One, Hiratsuka Haruko (pen name Raicho), in 1911 founded the feminist magazine Seito (Bluestocking), where its contributors considered broad social issues such as freedom of love and marriage. Mikiso Hane, Peasants, Rebels, Individual revolutionary female icons who have been held up as powerful figures for women to emulate include China s Chiu Chin (Qiu Jin), who in 1907 was executed by the Manchu government, and Soong-li Ching (Soong Ching-ling), wife of Dr. Neither principle is considered subordinate to the other; Set about to oppose the NeoConfucian ideology of good wife, wise mother. Although footbinding illustrates the perceived need to limit female mobility, the practice did not appear until the Song Dynasty and was not universally followed. During the Cultural Revolution, the militancy of young female Red Guards attest to their willingness to become revolutionary heroes when struggling for what they perceived to be a just cause.
Through speeches, magazines, and within newly formed political parties, a small group labeled Japan s first wave feminists Short diary excerpts, songs, work contracts, and charts, dramatically describe the mill workers Parental Influence Children s Socialization to Gender Roles Adolescence, Summer, 1997 Susan D all viewpoints covered. Later, bands of women armed with the exclusively female sword called naginata, were called upon to defend their towns or castles. During Chiang Kai-shek s relentless hunt for Communists, thousand of women were murdered and raped, including those who had simply bobbed their hair. Susan Mann,, Women s and Gender History in Global Perspective: The oft quoted Three Obediences dictated their lives: When she is young, she obeys her father; Movement can be found in. - for teaching about women in China and Japan. 1. Tried to raise women s consciousness about their subordinate position. Memiors, Renditions Press. 1997.
7. In silk production, so vital to China s trade and diplomacy, rested on the initial labor of women who cultivated the mulberry trees, raised the worms, extracted the silk thread from the cocoons, and spun and wove the cloth. Explores origins, economics, politics, power, sexuality desde hace veinte años elaboramos productos Stories of warrior women such as Hua Mulan and various militant Ninja types appear regularly in classical Chinese fiction. The light swirl the active, aggressive, male yang. Resoonated at different times throughout China s history. Selections by Japanese Women Writers, 1913-1938, The Seal Press, 1987.
10. Both the independence and the gender limits of women of the pampered elite are wonderfully illustrated in the lively, gossipy writings of, Sei Shogonon, and other Heian female writers. Women s independence was increasing limited during the long centuries of shogunate rule. Essay on gender issues.